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1994 Proceedings – Stirling, Scotland

The 12th International Conference

of the System Dynamics Society

1994 – Stirling, Scotland

The following papers were presented at the conference in parallel and plenary sessions. The original printed proceedings, edited by Clare Monaghan and Eric Wolstenholme, were printed in hardcopy and distributed at the conference. Below please find the Paper Index for these proceedings, including a link to the paper when available. Papers are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author. To find a paper by an author who is not the first author, simply search on the author’s name. Available papers are Acrobat (.pdf) files and can be read using Acrobat Reader available from

To view titles and abstracts on a searchable page, click here.

For details about purchasing a copy of the printed proceedings, visit our website System Dynamics Society or send an email message to

PAPER INDEX – listed alphabetically by first author:

Ackermann, Fran with Terry M. Williams, Colin Eden, Andrew J. Tate    Using Cognitive Mapping to Develop a Large System Dynamics Model

Akkermans, Henk with Jacqueline Bosker       Design Guidelines for Participative Business Modelling

Allaway, Arthur W. with Giles D’Sousa    Feedback and Control in a Product Portfolio Management Model

Alm, Irma     Managerial Conflicts in Social System: The Ignored Significance of Ethics and Values

Anderson, David F. with George P. Richardson    Scripts for GroupsModel Building

Anderson, David F. with Terrence A. Maxwell, George P. Richardson, Thomas R. Stewart    Mental Models and Dynamic Decision Making in a Simulation of Welfare Reform

Andrade, Hugo S. with Alvaro Ramirez G, Ana C. Uloa Q, Sofia Uloa Q    System Dynamics applied to Analysis Modeling and Simulation of Chain Growth Polymerization Process

Antunes, Paula with Rui Santos, Luis Jordao, Helder Alves, Joao Pedro Rodrigigues     ECOMAN – An Environmental Management Simulation Game

Bajpai, A. K. with P. C. T. Willey     A Dynamic Model of Quality Cost and Benefits Systems for Design Quality

Barlas, Yaman     Defining System Dynamics Education

Barlas, Yaman    Model Validation in System Dynamics

Bar-Nahor, Ronen with Chanoch Jacobsen    Introducing MIS: A Process of Directed Organization Change

Barnes, Jeremy with Fraser Burton, Ian Hawker, Michael H Lyons     Scenario Modeling of Demand for Future Telecommunications Services

Barrett, M. A. with B. Crellin     Illusion and Reality: A Systemic Approach to Management Development Workshops.

Barton, John     The Management of Urban Water Services – A study in Long – Term Institutional Dynamics

Baugh, P. J. with D. M. Walters    The Introduction of Hospital Information System – The Necessity for Accommodation

Bell, G. A. with J. O. Jenkins     Investigation Software project Resource Planning: An outline of a Proposed Multiple Case Study Research Approach

Bentham, J. B. with A. G. de Visscher     Systems Thinking and its Influence on Operational Culture

Bernstien, Dan S.     Dynamics of New York City Court System

Bernstien, Dan S. with George P. Richardson, Thomas R Stewarts    A Pocket Model of Global Warming for Policy and Scientific Debate

Bisht, B. S. with K. C. Sahu, K. Vizayakumar     A System Dynamics Model of Soybean Production in India

Breiter, Andres with Edoardo Mollona     Dynamics of Management Development and Enterprise In Eastern Europe

Brocklesby, John    Strategic Cultural Interventions in Systems Science – Examining the Prospects for the Further Development of Methodological Complementarism

Byrne, S. J. with L. Roberts    Efficient Parts Supply: Influence of Information Flows

Chung, IK Jae with Dong Hwan Kim     The Paradox of Rational Policies and Irrational Outcomes: A Case of Unexpected Policy Performance Caused by Information Delay

Cooper, J. F. S. with J O Chester, R Y Cavana    A Policy Making Framework for the New Zealand Wine Industry

Corben, David A.    Integrating Archetypes and Generic Models into a Framework for Model Conceptualisation

Crespo Marques, Adolfo with Ruiz Usano    Learning Maintenance Management through System Dynamics: A Continuous Improvement Process

Dangerfield, Brain with Carole Roberts    Projecting Model Behavior in the Absence of a Model: Results of a survey

Davidsen, Pal    Perspectives on Teaching System Dynamics: Coupling structure and behavior, annotating simulations, and supporting Just In Time Open Learning (JITOL)

Davidsen, Pal with Magne Myrtveit    Der Rutli Management Simulator – a new concept in system dynamics based management fight simulators

Davidsen, Pal   Possibilities and Challenges for System Dynamics Research and Education in Europe

Davis, Andrew    The Applications of System Dynamics to Re-Engineering Career Plans

Deakins, Eric with Graham Winch    Helping Not-for-Profit Enterprises Become More “Business-Like”: A Learning Organization Approach

Demay, Thierry with Christian de Cock    Information, System, Hence, Information System: The case for Ontological and Epistemological “depth”

Dhillon, Gurpreet with James Backhouse    Responsibility Analysis: A Basis for Understanding Complex Managerial Situations

Di Stefano, Julia M.    Feedback and Breakdowns as Breakthroughs in Dyadic Communications

Doman, Andrew with Maurice Glucksman, Nathaniel Mass, Michael Sasportes    The Dynamics of Managing a Life Insurance Company

Donhoff, Hans-Ulrich    Systems for Modeling and Simulating in Schools 

Drew, Donald R.    Modeling Infrastructure Induced Development at National and Regional Levels

Dyner, Isaac with Antonio Quintero    A System Dynamics Model to Evaluate Policies on Institutional Decentralization and Community Participation 

Evans, G. N. with M. M. Naim    The Dynamics of Capacity Constrained Supply Chains

Fisher, Diana M.    Teaching System Dynamics to Teachers and Students in 8-12 Environment 

Frances, Carol with Marshall Van Alstyne, Art Ashton, Thomas Hochstettler    Using System Dynamics Technology to Improve Planning and Budgeting for Higher Education: Results in Arizona and Houston, Texas

Garlick, F. J. with W. Wynn    An Archetype for Holistic Problem solving 

Gelvez Pinto, Lilia. N. with Zandy C. Muskus M., Hugo H. Andrade S., Gerardo Munoz M.    Mathematical Simulation Model for the Study of the Transmission Dynamics of the Leishmaniasis Under a Systemic Approach 

Genta, Peter J. with David P. Kreutzer, Gregg Anderson, Rusty Hinote, Williams C. Hood, Kim McMillan    How to Use System Dynamic to Create Your Own Future: A Case Study of Worldwide Oil and Gas Exploration Group 

Georgantzas, Nicholas C. with Amy Hamilton, Nancy Drobnis    Implementing AACSB Standards Through Feedback-Loop Planning

Georgantzas, Nicholas C. with Philip A. Schmid, Mark D. Walton    Intermediate Structure Economic Dynamics: The Television Industry 

Glass-Husain, William    Lessons for System Dynamics Mentors in Schools 

Greenman, J. V.    The Price of Oil: A System Dynamic Approach 

Grossmann, Martin    The Management of Innovation in International Corporations as a Dynamic Process of Organizational Learning 

Gulledge, Thomas with Henry Neimeier    Functional Economic Analysis of Purchasing at MITRE 

Roger I Hall    Organizational Learning and Adapting Trajectories Found in a System Dynamic Based Business Game 

Henden, Kjell    System Dynamics Underwood 

Hennessy, Gregory    Competitive Simulations: Introducing Corporations to Organizational Learning

Heyne, Gerton with Jac L. Geurts, Juliette Vermaas    DIAGNOST; A Microworld in the Healthcare for Elderly People 

Hines, James H. with Dewey W. Johnson    Launching System Dynamics 

Hobbs, Geoffrey D. with Bryan R. Deane    Modeling the Constraints on the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 

Hocking, Alan C. with Peng Sea Lee    Systems Thinking and Business Process Re-design: A Case for Combining Techniques 

Hodgson, Anthony M. with Gary B. Chicoine-Piper, Nela Chicoine-Piper    Requisite Cognitive Skills for Decisions about Systems 

Holmes, R. K.    The Use of Influence Diagrams in Formulating an IT Strategy for Retailers 

Holtham, Clive    Developing a Business Flight Simulator for Learning Organizations 

Hutchinson, W.   The Concept of Waste and its Use in Information System Design 

Jambekar, Anil B.    Frameworks for Integration of Systems Thinking in Quality Management Practices 

Jambekar, Anil B.    System Dynamics Analysis of Experience Gained During Personal Quality Improvement Projects 

Jijin, Geng    A Grey Simulated Model for Urban Strategy Planning on SocioEconomyEnvironmentR&D 

Keogh, W.    Total Quality Management – Managing Change in Manufacturing: Contrasting the Problem Solving Approach Employed in a Quality Cost Related Initiative with Soft System Methodology 

Kim, Dong Hwan with IK Jae Chang    Neural Network Heuristics for Controlling System Dynamics Model 

Knol, O. M.    System Dynamics Concepts Applied to the Development and Quality Assurance of Environmental Information Systems 

Konis, Costas Y.    A Soft Systems Management Approach to Energy and Conservation for the Hotel Industry of Cyprus 

Kreutzer, W. Brain with David P. Kreutzer    Applying the principles of Human Computer Interaction to the Design of Management Flight Simulators 

La Roche, U.    A Basic Business Loop as Starting Template for Customized Business-Process-Engineering Models 

La Roche, U.    Is there a Cause-Effect Relationship Between Unemployment and Taxation Level?

Lane, David C.    Social Theory and System Dynamics Practice

Lane, David C. with Rogelio Oliva    The Greater Whole Towards a Synthesis of SD and SSM

Lane, David C. with Jonathan Rosenhead    Only Connect! Part I: An annotated Selection from the Literature on the Problem Structuring Methods of ‘Soft’ Operational Research

Lane, David C. with Mike C Jackson    Only Connect! Part II: An annotated Selection from the Literature on the Breadth and Scope of Systems Thinking

Lane, David C. with Chris Smart    Mad, Bad and Dangerous To Know? The evolution and limitation of the ‘generic structure’ concept in system dynamics

Langley, Paul A. with Erik R. Larsen    I Can’t Believe It’s a System Dynamics Model! 

Larsen, Erik R. with Derek W. Bunn    Modeling Electricity Privatization in the UK 

Le Peutrec, Stephane with Michele Courant    Living Systems Dynamics: A New Approach for Knowledge Representation 

Linard, Keith T.    From Task To Goal Orientation   Changing the Culture of Public Sector Agencies A System Dynamics Approach 

Lewis, Edward    The Use of the SaGa Tool for Scenario-Based Planning

Lewis, Llewellyn B.    The use of iThink in Scenario Planning in the Building Industry In South Africa 

Ludwig, Michel with Michele Courant    Modeling Interactions Between Autonomous Agents 

Tom Lynch, Sonia Skelton, Michael H. Lyons    Strategic Analysis of Global Telecoms Service Provision 

Lyneis, James M.    Tactical vs. Strategic Approached to Competitive Positioning – An Example from the Telecommunications Industry 

Lyneis, James M. with Carl G. Bespolka, Ben Tucker    Preparing for a Competitive Environment – The Prospects for American’s Electricity Utilities 

Mahanty, Biswajit with Pratap K. J. Mohapatra    Evaluating Optimization Model Based Decision Support Systems in the Framework of a system Dynamics Based Game 

Maier, Frank H.    Integration of Knowledge-Based Systems and System Dynamics Models for Decision Support in Innovation Management 

Mantel, Rolf R. with Juan C. Rego, Pedro Goyena    Optimal Control Modeling with Vensim: Applications to Public Finance 

Marshall, Norman L. with Stephan J. C. Lawe    A Comparison of Regional Models Using Different Levels of Geographic Aggregations 

Mashayekhi, Ali N.    A Conventional Versus a System Dynamics Approach to Planning 

Milling, Peter M. with Frank Lehmann    Management Games for Group Decision Making in a Dynamic Environment 

Moffatt, Ian    Extending System Dynamics for Environmental Research and Management

Moizer, Jonathan D.     Safety Hazard Control in the Workplace: A Dynamic Model 

Mojtahedzadeh, Mohammad T.    Management of Fiscal and Monetary Policy (The Case of Developing Countries) 

Morecroft, John D. W. with Erik R. Larsen, Alessandro Lomi, Ari Ginsberg    To Shower or Not to Shower: A Behavioural Model of Competition of Shared Resources 

Thomas F Morgan, William M Ammentorp    Qualitative Analysis of Financial Models

Michael Morrison, Fern Marriott     In Search Of Learning Organization Within the Australian Hotel Industry 

Mould, G. I.    Short Term Manpower Planning: Time Basic Simulations vs Systems Dynamics Approach 

Mutuc, Jose Edgar S.    Investigating the Dynamics of Employee Participation 

Myrtveit, Mangne    Powerful Modeling Using Array Variables 

Naim, N. M. with D. R. Towill    System Dynamics and Learning Curves 

Nash, Allen    A System Based Methodology for Industry-Level Analysis 

Neimeier, Henry    Analytic Queuing Network 

Neimeier, Henry    Analytic Uncertainty Modeling 

Neimeier, Henry    Dynamics Software Life cycle Model 

Neimeier, Henry     Performance Evaluations Gradient 

Neimeier, Henry    Performance Evaluation Surface 

Neimeier, Henry     System Dynamics Model of the Standards Development Process 

Niu, Huien with Allan A. Gillard     Using System Dynamics Simulations Model to forecast Long-Term Urban Water Demand 

Nuthmann, Conrad F.    The Public School System: A Dynamic Model of Community Standards, Students, Teachers, and Resources 

O’Brian, Patrick J.     Job Opportunity. Wanted: Multi-Skilled Technicians to Join a Six-Person Production Team Operating Highly Automated Equipment. Immediately

Ochs, Martin R.     System Dynamics as a Tool to Advance Organizational Learning 

Oliva, Rogelio    Managerial Learning Laboratories: An Action Research Project for Group Learning 

Piattelli, Mauro with Nicola Bianchi, Marta Cuneo    A Model for the Polis, the Ancient City-State 

Polat, Seckin with Halulk Erkut     A Dynamic and Integrative Model for Detecting Strategic Changes in Efficiency and Effectiveness of an Industrial Company 

Probert, Stephen K.     The Epistemological Assumptions of the (Main) Soft System Methodology Advocates 

Quanjel, Marcel M. H. with Ivo Wenzler     Innovations in Conceptual Modeling 

Ren’an, Jia     A Study of Output Curve Intersections in the Case of Delay i (i=1,2,3, …) 

Repenning, Nelson P.    Modeling the Unanticipated Side Effects of Successful Quality and Productivity Improvement Programs 

Rich, Martin     Business Simulations and the Role of the Manager

Richardson, George P. with David F. Andersen, Terrence A. Maxwell, Thomas R. Stewart     Foundations of Mental Model Research 

Ritchie-Dunham, James L.     System Dynamics of Petroleum Development Training for Long-Term Cooperation Across Cultural Divides 

Rodrigues, Alexandre     The Role of System Dynamics in Project Management: A Comparative Analysis with Traditional Models 

Roy, Santanu with Pratap K. J. Mohapatra     Study of Work Climate in R&D Organizations: A System Dynamics Approach 

Rufat-Latre, Jorge    Strategy and Systems Thinking Though Dynamics Storytelling 

Ruiz, A. with Jose A. D. Machuca, Miguel A. D. Machuca    Utilization of System Dynamics for Comparing Traditional and O.P.T Production Systems 

Ryan, Tom     A Framework for Problem Solving Using Dynamics Modeling with a Japanese Management Technique

Ryzhenkov, Alexander     Bargaining Delays in a Macroeconomic Context 

Saeed, Khalid with Ponthep Prankprakma     Technological Development in a Dual Economy: Alternative Policy Levers for Economic Development

Schecker, Horst P.      System Dynamics in High School Physics

Scholl, Greg J.     Results of the 1993 System Dynamics Society Benchmarking Study 

Schwandt, David R.    Organizational Learning as a Dynamics Sociological Construct: Theory and Research 

Sedehi, Hebib with Ugo Biader Ceipidor, Lidia D’Alessio, Chiara Ronconi    System Dynamics for Budget Planning and Management Control 

Shimada, Toshiro with Takahiro Kojima, Koichiro Okumura, Kinya Machida, Akira Uchino     Number of Surviving Teeth for Japanese Age Groups 

Sholtes, Robert M.    Optimizing System Behavior using Genetic Algorithms 

Sliwa, Kazimierz Roman    Dynamics of Organizational Learning, An Axiomatic and Model Approach

Sliwa, Kazimierz Roman    Solid Waste Management in Puebla. A system Dynamics Approach 

Smith, Ricardo with Gloria E. Pena, Isaac Dyner, Juan C. Suarez    System Dynamics Modeling of Energy Consumptions in the Colombian Industrial Nation 

Sotaquira G, Ricardo with Jorge H. Panqueva, Hugo H. Andrade S.    A System Approach for estimating Corrosion Incidence to the Economy of a Nation 

Stoyanova, P . with R. Woodward, M. Elliott, A. O. Moscardini    Using a System Dynamics Approach as a Tool for Enhanced Company Performance Through Developing the Imagination Models of Managers 

Strohhecker, Juergen    Modeling the Diffusion of Innovations Based on Individuals Adoption Decisions 

Strumpfer, Johan with Tom Ryan    Experiences in Teaching System Thinking 

Stumpf, Stephan A. with Mary Anne Watson, Hemant Rustogi    Leadership in a Global Village: Creating Practice Fields to Develop Learning Organizations 

Stuntz, Lees N.    Systems Educations for Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade in the United States: A view from the Creative Learning Exchange 

Taket, Ann with Leroy White    Beyond Solution: A Re-Presentation for the “New Times” 

Thiel, Daniel    System Dynamics in Educational Science: An Experience of Teaching Production-Distributions Mental ModelsBuilding 

Thurlby, R. K. with J. O. Chang    The Applications of System Dynamics to Re-Engineering of Value Processes 

Todoroki, Tomoyuki with Yoshio Hanzawa, Atsushi Fukuda    Simulations Model for Policy Analysis on Multi-Airport System in Metropolitan Region 

Towill, Denis R.    “1961 and all that: The influence of Jay Forrester and John Burbidge on the Design of Modern manufacturing Systems” 

Van Ackere, Ann    A Systems Thinking Approach to Analyze the Waitinglist Phenomenon 

Vennix, Jac A. M.    Building Consensus in Strategic Decision-Making: Insights from the process Group Model-Building 

Vriens, D. with E. Philips    A Systemic Account of Learning Organizations: Defining the Learning Capabilities of Organizations 

Wang, Qifan with Wang Huihua, Jin Yin, Wang Xianyong    A Promising Way of Revamping the State-Owned Enterprises In China 

Wang, Qifan    The Development of Shanghai in 2010 

Weil,Henry Birdsye with Leon S. White    Business Transformation: The Key to long-term survival and success 

Warren, Kim    Simulating the Effects of Regulatory Change in the UK Pubs Industry 

Wheeler, Frederick P.    How to get Managers to Use System Dynamics 

White, Leroy with Tony Ackroyd, Michelle Blackeborough    Learning about Modelling for Learning 

Wing, Phillip with Mark Maloney    Managing Information Technology Investments – The Application of a Dynamic System Approach

Wolff, Rolf with Olof Zaring    Organisational Learning – The creation of ecological minds in organisations 

Wolstenholme, Eric    Developing a Balanced View of Management Ecology 

Xu, Qingrui with Jin Chen, Shaoxia Chan, Jie Han    System Dynamics Modeling of National Policy: Case of Environment Conservation Input in China 

Young, Mike with Robert Bailey    Modeling Defense: A Challenge to System Dynamics 

Young, Showing H. with Sy-Feng Wang, Jenshou Yang    Overcoming the Learning Barriers of Management Flight Simulators: Task Salience and the Dissociation between Performance and Learning 

Youngdahl, William E. with Russell W. Wright, Lillian C. Wright    The House of Quality Within a Knowledge-Based View of Firm

last updated by NG on 1/24/08